This study analyses how national courts in Europe have assessed cartel overcharges.

The scope of the study covers the EU 27 plus Norway, Switzerland and the UK. The research was completed with the help of 210 contributors: 140 lawyers, law professors and economists, 26 national competition authorities and 44 national judges. The European Commission and the Association of European Competition Law Judges (AECLJ) have also kindly offered assistance.

Findings retrieved from this study are employed by the European Commission in its Report on the implementation of the “damages” Directive 2014/104/UE (December 2020, link).

The study is also mentioned in the Communication from the Commission on the protection of confidential information by national courts in proceedings for the private enforcement of EU competition law (July 2020, link).

A revised and enriched edition of this study was completed in the first semester 2021 (link).